History of the United States Air Force UFO Programs
Thomas Tulien

  1. In the Summer of 1947…
  2. The Public and the Press
  3. The United States Air Force Responds
  4. Project Sign
  5. Project Grudge
  6. Project Blue Book
  7. The CIA Robertson Panel
  8. A Turning Point in the Controversy

Endnote 1

Michael Swords, comp., Cases at the Beginning of the Modern UFO Era: Kenneth Arnold, June 24, 1947,” Historical Document Series, No. 1 (J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies, Oct. 1992)

Kenneth Arnold and Raymond Palmer, The Coming of the Saucers (Amherst, WS: Legend Press, n.d.), 9-15.

Also, The 1947 Kenneth Arnold UFO Sighting
http://ufoevidence.org/cases/case511.htm.

Arnold provided a drawing for the Army Air Force, dated 12 July 1947. Available online from:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Arnold_AAF_drawing.jpg.

×

Endnote 2

For examples of early press reports (click on “More 1947 Reports”) see:
http://www.project1947.com/fig/1947a.htm

Also, David Rudiak’s extensive compilation of UFO sighting reports in local newspapers from New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, and parts of Arkansas for June/July 1947.
http://roswellproof.com/NM_UFO_Reports.html

×

Endnote 3

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (quote in Section I-2):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

Also, Jan L. Aldrich, Project 1947: A Preliminary Report on the 1947 UFO Sighting Wave (UFO Research Coalition, 1997).

×

Endnote 4

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (Section I-4):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

×

Endnote 5

David M. Jacobs, The UFO Controversy in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975), pp. 39-40

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (Section I-4):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

×

Endnote 6

See Bloecher’s updated chronological index of over 850 sighting reports for June and July 1947: http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/SightingChronology.pdf

In the years following the publication of his report, Bloecher increased the number of reports for this period to over 1000.

×

Endnote 7

David M. Jacobs, The UFO Controversy in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975), pp. 38-39

Jan L. Aldrich, Project 1947: A Preliminary Report on the 1947 UFO Sighting Wave (UFO Research Coalition, 1997).

×

Endnote 8

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (Quote in Section I-9):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

×

Endnote 9

A comprehensive and very informative summary of the Roswell press releases and coverage is available online from:
http://roswellproof.homestead.com/Press_Coverage.html

×

Endnote 10

See, for example:
http://roswellproof.com/RMD_Wilcox_July9.html

×

Endnote 11

See, DuBose interviews and affidavit available online from:
http://roswellproof.com/dubose.html#anchor_3254

×

Endnote 12

See, for examples:
http://roswellproof.com/UP_Standard_July9.html

×

Endnote 13

See, for examples:
http://roswellproof.com/militarydebunk.html

×

Endnote 14

Quoted from Herbert J. Strentz, A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 - 1966. (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1970), pp.29-30.

×

Endnote 15

Fourth Air Force, Hamilton Field, CA investigated the 8 July 1947 UFO sightings at Muroc Army Air Field (later, Edwards AFB, and Air Force Flight Test Center), California. The witness affidavits are available online from: http://www.project1947.com/fig/muroc47.htm.

A few month’s later, on 14 October 1947, Air Force Capt. Chuck Yeager flew the Bell X-1 on the first manned supersonic flight at Muroc AAF.

×

Endnote 16

See Appendix 1 (pp. 57-61) in, Michael D. Swords, Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” Journal of UFO Studies, n.s. 7, 2000: 27-64.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version available from:
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

Re: Item (b)—the silence from topside: “As July wore on into August, Garrett, Schulgen, and Reynolds became confused by a lack of interest and pressure emanating from the high echelons of the Pentagon. The previous year they had gone through an investigative furor about a subject that they considered to be similar to the flying discs, when hundreds of “ghost rocket” reports came out of Sweden and other European countries. In 1946, the top brass had exerted continuous pressure to find an answer, but now it had gone completely quiet. It was very peculiar to Garrett and the FBI. Their mutual suspicion was that the very highest officials knew what this phenomenon was already” (Swords, 2000, p. 31).

×

Endnote 17

Schulgen, George F, Memorandum to FBI Liaison Section, 5 September 1947. “A complete survey of research activities discloses that the Army Air Forces has no project with the characteristics similar to those which have been associated with the Flying Discs.” Quoted from, Michael D. Swords, Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation, p. 33.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version available from:
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

×

Endnote 18

Letter from General N.F. Twining, “Subject: AMC Opinion Concerning “Flying Discs,” to Commanding General, Army Air Forces, 23 September 1947.
http://www.nicap.org/twining_letter_docs.htm
Text version: http://project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-r.html

×

Endnote 19

Edward Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1956), pp. 27-28.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

×

Endnote 20

Directive from Major General L. C. Craigie to Commanding General Wright-Patterson AFB, on disposition of security for Project “Sign,” 30 December 1947.
http://project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-s.html

×

Endnote 21

See Project Sign, “Supplement to Trip Report to Watson Labs—3-4 June 1948.”
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=MAXW-PBB3-845 (845-846)

×

Endnote 22

See NICAP Case Summary, “Subject: Chiles-Whitted Case, Montgomery, AL, July 24, 1947.”
http://www.nicap.org/480724adir.htm

See also follow-up and other witness reports, in Air Intelligence Information Report 129-122-79, 20 Dec. 1948.
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=MAXW-PBB4-18 (18-23)

×

Endnote 23

Michael D. Swords, “Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” p. 48-49.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm (845-846)
HTML version: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

Ruppelt was chief of Project Blue Book from 1951-1953. In 1956 he published a memoir of his experiences investigating UFOs for the USAF, titled, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. Only the last paragraph of the quote was included in Ruppelt’s book (p. 41). Mike Swords (CUFOS) is the conservator of the Ruppelt Files.

×

Endnote 24

USAF Directorate of Intelligence and Office of Naval Intelligence, Analysis of Flying Object Incidents in the U.S., Air Intelligence Report 100-203-79, 10 December 1948.
http://www.nicap.org/docs/airintelrpt100-203-79.pdf
Text version: http://www.webroots.org/library/usamisc/airts000.html

×

Endnote 25

Swords, “Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” p. 62.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

×

Endnote 26

Swords, “Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” p. 63-64.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm ×

Endnote 27

Unidentified Aerial Objects Project “Sign” (Technical Report No. F-TR-2274-IA), February 1949. (Quote on page 10).
http://www.nicap.org/docs/SignRptFeb1949.pdf

×

Endnote 28

Unidentified Aerial Objects Project “Sign,” Appendix “D”. (pp. 37-45)
http://www.nicap.org/docs/SignRptFeb1949.pdf

“Appendix D” text version: http://project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-d.html

×

Endnote 29

For an insider’s view of the abrupt change in policy, see:
Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 58-59
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

×

Endnote 30

Unidentified Flying Objects Project “Grudge” (Technical Report No. 102-AC 49/15-100), August 1949. The quote (Conclusions) appear on p. 9.
http://www.nicap.org/docs/grudgereport_complete.pdf

×

Endnote 31

Michael Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge, ed. David M. Jacobs, (University Press of Kansas, 2000), 97-99.

×

Endnote 32

For examples see items: 112; 187; 202; 231; 235; 238; 290; 291; 292; 297; 298; 304; 325; 326 in Brad Sparks, comp., Comprehensive Catalog of 1,500 Project Blue Book UFO Unknowns: A Work in Progress, 2001-2003.
http://www.aliensthetruth.com/images/docs/BB_Unknowns_1_7.pdf

In addition, http://www.cufos.org/BB_Unknowns.html

Also, for a compilation of 42 UFO sighting reports covering a period from Sept. 1950-1954, by military personnel serving in Korea, see Richard F. Haines, Advanced Aerial Devices Reported During the Korean War (Los Altos, CA: LDA Press, 1990).

×

Endnote 33

Jerome Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon From The Beginning, Vol. 1 (Detroit: Omnigraphics Books, 1998), pp. 431-432.

×

Endnote 34

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 91-93, and Ruppelt Files.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

×

Endnote 35

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions, p. 103-104. Original quote from Ruppelt Files.

×

Endnote 36

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era,” in UFOs and Abductions, p. 105.

×

Endnote 37

Department of the Air Force, AFL 200-5, (29 April 1952).
http://www.nicap.org/directives/AFL_200-5.pdf
Text version from: http://www.cufon.org/cufon/AFL200-5.htm.

×

Endnote 38

For examples of 1952 press accounts and various documents, see:
http://www.project1947.com/fig/1952a.htm

×

Endnote 39

Peter Carlson, “Alien Armada! (1952 Washington, DC UFO sightings),” Washington Post, 21 July 2002.
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc823.htm

×

Endnote 40

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 160.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

×

Endnote 41

Jerome Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon from the Beginning, Vol. 2 (Detroit: Omnigraphics Books, 1998), p. 999. Original quote from: Harry G. Barnes, “Washington Radar Observer Relates Watching Stunts by Flying Saucers,” New York World-Telegram (July 29, 1952).
http://www.nicap.org/articles/newsarticlesJuly1952.pdf (page 16)

×

Endnote 42

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 164-165.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

×

Endnote 43

Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 1001. Albert Chop, the Pentagon’s Public Information Officer, was present in the radar room during Lt. Patterson’s encounter:

“Let's say I was apprehensive. Damn apprehensive and maybe a little frightened! Because I didn't know what was going to happen! And, I could see what was going on on the radarscope. So, everybody was silent, and we're just listening to Barnes vectoring the plane around the different areas. And then having Patterson say he saw these objects: ‘I see them, and I'm moving in for a better look.’ And then, ‘They're all around me. What shall I do?’ You know, what would you tell him?” Chop, Albert M., 1999

Interviewed by Thomas Tulien and Brad Sparks, November 5 (Sign Oral History Project) pp. 10-14; 45-46.

×

Endnote 44

Peter Carlson, “Alien Armada! (1952 Washington, DC UFO sightings).
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc823.htm

Farnsworth’s quote also in: Australian Associated Press, 30 July 1952.
http://www.project1947.com/fig/1952a.htm

×

Endnote 45

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 168-167.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

×

Endnote 46

Peter Carlson, “Alien Armada! (1952 Washington, DC UFO sightings).
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc823.htm

Donald E. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers from Outer Space (New York: Henry Holt, 1953), pp. 71-89. See also NICAP Case Directory: Washington National Radar/Visual Sightings from:
http://www.nicap.org/wnsdir.htm

and July 1952 newspaper accounts
http://www.nicap.org/articles/newsarticlesJuly1952.pdf

×

Endnote 47

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 169-1970.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Also of interest, original case documents for Project Blue Book case #1661, Washington National Sightings (July 1952); and a study by the Civil Aeronautics Administration in May 1953, titled, A Preliminary Study of Unidentified Targets Observed On Air Traffic Control Radars. This study was conducted on numerous targets observed 13-14 August on the Washington Microwave-Early-Warning (MEW) radar, supplemented by observations in November during initial test runs on the Indianapolis ASR-2 radar.
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/wash_nat/wash1952.htm#Zero

Also, James E. McDonald, “Meteorological Factors in Unidentified Radar Returns” (presented to the American Meteorological Society, Nov. 1970). Available online from:
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/metfac70.html

×

Endnote 48

Truman had been receiving quarterly briefings on the flying saucer issue from his Air Force Aide, Brig. General Robert B. Landry since 1948. See (Addendum, Subject: UFOs)
http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/landryr.htm

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 167.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

×

Endnote 49

Gerald K. Haines. "CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90" Studies in Intelligence, Semiannual Edition, No. 1 (1997). Available online (see “Early CIA Concerns, 1947-52”)
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html#top
Also from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/library/ciaufo.html

×

Endnote 50

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions, p. 109-111.
×

Endnote 51

Marshall Chadwell, memorandum for DCI, ""Unidentified Flying Objects," 2 December 1952.

Chadwell, memorandum for Amory, DDI, "Approval in Principle - External Research Project Concerned with Unidentified Flying Objects," no date.

Haines, "CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90" Studies in Intelligence. (Early CIA Concerns, 1947-52)
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html#top

×

Endnote 52

“Report of Panel” (Tab A). In Report of Meetings of Scientific Advisory Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects Convened by Office of Scientific Intelligence, CIA, 14-18 January 1953.
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/robert.htm

Also, declassified CIA documents pertaining to UFOs available from:
http://www.foia.cia.gov/search/site/ufo

×

Endnote 53

Somewhat ironically, in 1965 Arthur Godfrey disclosed on his nationwide television program an alarming UFO encounter he and co-pilot Frank Munciello experienced while piloting his private executive airplane. Donald Keyhoe, Aliens From Outer Space (1973) pp. 111-112.

Also: http://www.rense.com/ufo5/filers112699.htm

×

Endnote 54

Haines. "CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90" Studies in Intelligence.
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html#top (see Robertson Panel, 1952-53)

Endnote 55

Original quote (pp. 23-24)
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/robert.htm

Also, “Within a month, the FBI was investigating Los Angeles’s Civilian Saucer Investigations, and Walter Riedel was being pressured to resign. Robertson shortly wrote to Marshall Chadwell: “That ought to fix the Forteans.” Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era,” UFOs and Abductions, p. 115. Historical information on CSI-LA from:
http://www.project1947.com/shg/csi/index.html#csi2

×

Endnote 55

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. p. 97.

×

Endnote 57

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 104-105; JANAP 146C and JANAP 146E
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/janp146c.htm

×

Endnote 58

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 142-144. For example, the 24 October 1968 Minot AFB case report concluded two probable (Ground-visual: Aircraft-B-52, and Astro-Sirius), and two possible explanations (Radar: Plasma, and Air-visual: Plasma). Multiple explanations were required to account for different aspects of the observations. The Blue Book Statistical Data for 1968 categorized the Minot AFB case as identified (Other), by Radar Analysis (as plasma). The Minot AFB targeting officer that analyzed the B-52 radarscope film for SAC/HQ concluded that the object was unidentified. See Quintanilla, “UFOs: An Air Force Dilemma,” (see p. 115 of PDF)
http://www.noufors.com/Documents/afdilemma.pdf
http://www.minotb52ufo.com/pdf/Quintanilla-afdilemma.pdf

The final chapter provides Blue Book statistical data based on UFO reports received for the years 1953-69.

×

Endnote 59

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions, p. 117. Original quote from the Ruppelt Files.

×

Endnote 60

Donald E. Keyhoe, The Flying Saucers Are Real (New York: Fawcett Publications, 1950); Flying Saucers From Outer Space (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1953); The Flying Saucer Conspiracy (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1955).

See also the Donald E. Keyhoe Archives:
http://www.hallrichard.com/keyhoe.htm

×

Endnote 61

Jacques and Janine Vallee, Challenge to Science: The UFO Enigma (Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Co., 1966), p. 46.

×

Endnote 62

Top five months for reports; July 1952: 536, November 1957: 361, August 1952: 326, August 1965: 262, May 1967: 165. See “Table 1: Number of UFO Reports Received each Month by Project Blue Book.” (p. 861)
http://www.project1947.com/shg/condon/s5chap02.html

Also, Los Angeles Times, 1 August 1965
http://www.isgp.eu/UFOs/press_reports/1965_08_01_LAT_Unidentified_Objects_Seen_in_Sky_Again.htm

×

Endnote 63

Francis E. Warren AFB, Cheyenne, WY is home of the 90th [Strategic] Missile Wing. The 200 ICBM Minuteman missile sites are spread over an area of 12,600 square miles in Wyoming, Colorado and Nebraska. Each Flight (designated A-T) contains a centralized Launch Control Facility, manned by a Flight Security Controller, and Security Alert Teams responsible for the security requirements of 10 Minuteman ICBM missiles, housed in remote underground silos.

More information on F.E. Warren AFB:
http://www.warren.af.mil/library/factsheets/index.asp

F. E. Warren AFB, Missile Site Map:
http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/shared/media/photodb/photos/090108-F-1234P-002.jpg

×

Endnote 64

J. Allen Hynek, The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry (Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Co., 1972) pp. 184-185. Original transcript of telephone calls received by Project Blue Book (roughly halfway down the page)
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc296.htm

×

Endnote 65

See for example, “Ellington AFB [Houston, TX] UFO reports associated with Midwest flap 31 July-7 August 1965”
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-341

The reports were apparently compiled in a separate folder (file #9665) not presently available online.

×

Endnote 66

Vallees, Challenge to Science, p. 44; and Jerome Clark, “The Greatest Flap Yet?” Flying Saucer Review 12,1 (January/February 1966), p. 27. Also in Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

×

Endnote 67

Vallees, Challenge to Science, pp. 44-45; Jerome Clark, “The Greatest Flap Yet?” Flying Saucer Review 12,1 (January/February 1966), p. 27

×

Endnote 68

Vallees, Challenge to Science, p. 45; Hynek, The UFO Experience, photo insert, Plate 2 (two photos and caption); Jacques Vallee, Forbidden Science: Journals 1957-1969 (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1992) p.146; and Clark, “The Greatest Flap Yet?” Flying Saucer Review 12,1, p. 27.

Also, of photographic interest see:
http://ufopics.blogspot.com/search/label/1965

×

Endnote 69

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” pp. 47-48. Clark, UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

×

Endnote 70

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” p. 48. Clark, UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

×

Endnote 71

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 194-195.

Clark, UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

×

Endnote 72

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” p.48.

×

Endnote 73

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” p.50.

×

Endnote 74

Hynek, The UFO Experience, pp. 197-198. Gen. LeBailly memorandum (pp. 1286-1287)
http://www.project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-a.html

×

Endnote 75

Ann Arbor (AP), 14 March 1966; and Ann Arbor (AP), 17 March 1966, in John C. Sherwood, Flying Saucers Are Watching You: The Incident at Dexter and the Incredible Michigan Flap (Clarksburg, WV: Saucerian Publications, 1967). Also, UFO Case Report, “The Michigan Sightings/’Swamp Gas’ Case,”
http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case778.htm

×

Endnote 76

Detroit Free Press, 22 March 1966, in Sherwood, Flying Saucers Are Watching You; and Life Magazine, “Well Witnessed Invasion by Something: from Australia to Michigan,” 1 April 1966, pp. 24-31.

×

Endnote 77

Ann Arbor (AP), 21 March 1966, in Sherwood, Flying Saucers Are Watching You.

×

Endnote 78

UFO Case Report, “Sheriffs Watch High-Performance Discs, Also Tracked on Radar”
http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case778.htm

×

Endnote 79

“News Release by William Van Horn including Lab Results of 1966 Swamp Gas Case”
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/swampgas.htm

Los Angeles Times, 23 August 1966
http://www.isgp.eu/UFOs/press_reports/1966_03_23_LAT_Second_Aerial_Object_Reported_in_Michigan.htm

Life Magazine, 1 April, 1966.

Also, various press accounts of the Michigan sightings from:
http://www.ufologie.net/htm/michi662.htm

…and a collection of documents from:
http://xx12.com/Michigan%201966%20UFO.htm

×

Endnote 80

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 201-202; “Statement on Dexter and Hillsdale UFO Sightings by J. Allen Hynek, Scientific Consultant to Project Blue Book,” (Detroit Press Club, 25 March 1966).
http://xx12.com/Michigan%201966%20UFO.htm

×

Endnote 81

Time Magazine, “Fatuus Season” 1 April 1966.
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,840602,00.html

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. p. 202.

For Quintanilla’s perspective see “The Michigan Flap” (pp. 51-52 of PDF):
http://www.minotb52ufo.com/pdf/Quintanilla-afdilemma.pdf

×

Endnote 82

News release, Gerald R. Ford to George P. Millar, Chairman; Rep. L. Mendel Rivers, Chairman, Science and Astronautics Committee, Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, 3/28/66; (Folder “UFO 1966,” Box D9) Gerald R. Ford Congressional Papers, Gerald R. Ford Library.
http://www.presidentialufo.com/gerald-ford/89-gerald-ford-ufo-talk

×

Endnote 84

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 198-199.

“Special Report of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, Ad Hoc Committee to Review Project Blue Book,” March 1966.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-a.html

×

Endnote 85

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 204-206.

Also, for Quintanilla’s perspective see “The Beginning of a Congressional Coup” (pp. 53-56 of PDF)
http://www.minotb52ufo.com/pdf/Quintanilla-afdilemma.pdf

×

Endnote 86

Air Force Regulation 80-17
AFR-80-17.pdf

×

Endnote 87

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 206-209.

Articles and documents re: the University of Colorado UFO project and the Condon report:
http://www.ufoevidence.org/topics/CondonReport.htm
http://www.project1947.com/shg/shglinks.html#condon

×

Endnote 88

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 224.

×

Endnote 89

Michael D. Swords, “The University of Colorado UFO Project: The ‘Scientific Study of UFOs’” Journal of UFO Studies, n.s. 6, 1995/1996: pp. 157-161.

Quoted in Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon From The Beginning, Vol. 2, p. 949.

×

Endnote 90

Lt. Col. Robert Hippler, to Dr. Edward Condon, 16 January 1967.
http://www.nicap.org/docs/HipplerLetters.pdf
(includes Robert Low to Lt. Col. Robert Hippler, 27 January 1967; and news clipping of Condon’s 25 January lecture at Corning).

×

Endnote 91

Dick Olive, “Most UFO’s Explainable, Says Scientist,” Star-Gazette (Elmira, NY, 26 January 1967).
http://www.nicap.org/docs/HipplerLetters.pdf (page 5)

×

Endnote 92

John G. Fuller, “Flying Saucer Fiasco,” Look, 14 May 1968.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/fiasco.html

×

Endnote 93

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 225-238.

David Saunders and R. Roger Harkins, UFOs? Yes! (New York: Signet, 1968).

Also, U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Science and Astronautics, Hearings, Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, 90th Cong., 2d sess., 29 July 1968.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/symposium/index.html

×

Endnote 94

Review of the University of Colorado Report on Unidentified Flying Objects by a Panel of the National Academy of Sciences. (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 8 January 1969).
Text version: http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/nascu.html

Also of interest re: NAS, Richard Greenwell, “Odishaw and the Condon Report” from:
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/greenwell.html

×

Endnote 95

Daniel Gilmore, ed., Final Report of the Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (New York: Bantam, 1968). (quote in Section I, page 2)
http://project1947.com/shg/condon/index.html.

×

Endnote 96

"A Sledgehammer for Nuts," Nature Volume 221 (March 8, 1969): 899-900.

×

Endnote 97

“The Condon Report and UFOs,” review by J. Allen Hynek, in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, April 1969: 39-42.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/bas1.html

See also P.A. Sturrock, “An Analysis of the Condon Report on the Colorado UFO Project,” Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. I, No. I, 1987, pp. 75-100.
http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_01_1_sturrock_2.pdf

×

Endnote 98

Air Force to Terminate Project “Blue Book”. Washington, DC: Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs), 17 December 1969.
http://www.nicap.org/waves/1969BB_Termination.pdf

×

Endnote 99

Records of Project Blue Book 1947-69 (National Archives Microfilm Publication T1206, [94 rolls of 35 mm film]); Records of Headquarters United States Air Force (Air Staff), Record Group 341; National Archives II, College Park, MD. NARA Guide to Federal Records
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/341.html#341.15

See also, The Project Blue Book Archive: free access to tens of thousands of official documents related to the U.S. government's investigation of the UFO phenomenon.
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/documentation/about_bba.aspx

×

Endnote 100

This statement appears to originate in USAF Fact Sheets from the 1970s.
http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/ufo/

Re: Bibliography—see also Library of Congress, Science Reference Series (Tracer Bullet 91-1)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/tracer-bullets/ufostb.html

Naval Historical Archive - Project Blue Book Bibliography
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq29-1.htm

×

History of the United States Air Force UFO Programs

Thomas Tulien

Endnotes

Endnote 1

Michael Swords, comp., Cases at the Beginning of the Modern UFO Era: Kenneth Arnold, June 24, 1947,” Historical Document Series, No. 1 (J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies, Oct. 1992)

Kenneth Arnold and Raymond Palmer, The Coming of the Saucers (Amherst, WS: Legend Press, n.d.), 9-15.

Also, The 1947 Kenneth Arnold UFO Sighting
http://ufoevidence.org/cases/case511.htm.

Arnold provided a drawing for the Army Air Force, dated 12 July 1947. Available online from:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Arnold_AAF_drawing.jpg.

Endnote 2

For examples of early press reports (click on “More 1947 Reports”) see:
http://www.project1947.com/fig/1947a.htm

Also, David Rudiak’s extensive compilation of UFO sighting reports in local newspapers from New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, and parts of Arkansas for June/July 1947.
http://roswellproof.com/NM_UFO_Reports.html

Endnote 3

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (quote in Section I-2):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

Also, Jan L. Aldrich, Project 1947: A Preliminary Report on the 1947 UFO Sighting Wave (UFO Research Coalition, 1997).

Endnote 4

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (Section I-4):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

Endnote 5

David M. Jacobs, The UFO Controversy in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975), pp. 39-40

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (Section I-4):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

Endnote 6

See Bloecher’s updated chronological index of over 850 sighting reports for June and July 1947: http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/SightingChronology.pdf

In the years following the publication of his report, Bloecher increased the number of reports for this period to over 1000.

Endnote 7

David M. Jacobs, The UFO Controversy in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975), pp. 38-39

Jan L. Aldrich, Project 1947: A Preliminary Report on the 1947 UFO Sighting Wave (UFO Research Coalition, 1997).

Endnote 8

Ted Bloecher, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947 (Washington, DC: the author, 1967), (Quote in Section I-9):
http://nicap.org/waves/Wave47Rpt/ReportUFOWave1947_Menu.htm

Endnote 9

A comprehensive and very informative summary of the Roswell press releases and coverage is available online from:
http://roswellproof.homestead.com/Press_Coverage.html

Endnote 10

See, for example:
http://roswellproof.com/RMD_Wilcox_July9.html

Endnote 11

See, DuBose interviews and affidavit available online from:
http://roswellproof.com/dubose.html#anchor_3254

Endnote 12

See, for examples:
http://roswellproof.com/UP_Standard_July9.html

Endnote 13

See, for examples:
http://roswellproof.com/militarydebunk.html

Endnote 14

Quoted from Herbert J. Strentz, A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 - 1966. (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1970), pp.29-30.

Endnote 15

Fourth Air Force, Hamilton Field, CA investigated the 8 July 1947 UFO sightings at Muroc Army Air Field (later, Edwards AFB, and Air Force Flight Test Center), California. The witness affidavits are available online from: http://www.project1947.com/fig/muroc47.htm.

A few month’s later, on 14 October 1947, Air Force Capt. Chuck Yeager flew the Bell X-1 on the first manned supersonic flight at Muroc AAF.

Endnote 16

See Appendix 1 (pp. 57-61) in, Michael D. Swords, Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” Journal of UFO Studies, n.s. 7, 2000: 27-64.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version available from:
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

Re: Item (b)—the silence from topside: “As July wore on into August, Garrett, Schulgen, and Reynolds became confused by a lack of interest and pressure emanating from the high echelons of the Pentagon. The previous year they had gone through an investigative furor about a subject that they considered to be similar to the flying discs, when hundreds of “ghost rocket” reports came out of Sweden and other European countries. In 1946, the top brass had exerted continuous pressure to find an answer, but now it had gone completely quiet. It was very peculiar to Garrett and the FBI. Their mutual suspicion was that the very highest officials knew what this phenomenon was already” (Swords, 2000, p. 31).

Endnote 17

Schulgen, George F, Memorandum to FBI Liaison Section, 5 September 1947. “A complete survey of research activities discloses that the Army Air Forces has no project with the characteristics similar to those which have been associated with the Flying Discs.” Quoted from, Michael D. Swords, Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation, p. 33.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version available from:
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

Endnote 18

Letter from General N.F. Twining, “Subject: AMC Opinion Concerning “Flying Discs,” to Commanding General, Army Air Forces, 23 September 1947.
http://www.nicap.org/twining_letter_docs.htm
Text version: http://project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-r.html

Endnote 19

Edward Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1956), pp. 27-28.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Endnote 20

Directive from Major General L. C. Craigie to Commanding General Wright-Patterson AFB, on disposition of security for Project “Sign,” 30 December 1947.
http://project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-s.html

Endnote 21

See Project Sign, “Supplement to Trip Report to Watson Labs—3-4 June 1948.”
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=MAXW-PBB3-845 (845-846)

Endnote 22

See NICAP Case Summary, “Subject: Chiles-Whitted Case, Montgomery, AL, July 24, 1947.”
http://www.nicap.org/480724adir.htm

See also follow-up and other witness reports, in Air Intelligence Information Report 129-122-79, 20 Dec. 1948.
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=MAXW-PBB4-18 (18-23)

Endnote 23

Michael D. Swords, “Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” p. 48-49.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm (845-846)
HTML version: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

Ruppelt was chief of Project Blue Book from 1951-1953. In 1956 he published a memoir of his experiences investigating UFOs for the USAF, titled, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. Only the last paragraph of the quote was included in Ruppelt’s book (p. 41). Mike Swords (CUFOS) is the conservator of the Ruppelt Files.

Endnote 24

USAF Directorate of Intelligence and Office of Naval Intelligence, Analysis of Flying Object Incidents in the U.S., Air Intelligence Report 100-203-79, 10 December 1948.
http://www.nicap.org/docs/airintelrpt100-203-79.pdf
Text version: http://www.webroots.org/library/usamisc/airts000.html

Endnote 25

Swords, “Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” p. 62.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

Endnote 26

Swords, “Project Sign and the Estimate of the Situation,” p. 63-64.
http://www.nicap.org/papers/swords_Sign_EOTS.htm
HTML version: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm

Endnote 27

Unidentified Aerial Objects Project “Sign” (Technical Report No. F-TR-2274-IA), February 1949. (Quote on page 10).
http://www.nicap.org/docs/SignRptFeb1949.pdf

Endnote 28

Unidentified Aerial Objects Project “Sign,” Appendix “D”. (pp. 37-45)
http://www.nicap.org/docs/SignRptFeb1949.pdf

“Appendix D” text version: http://project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-d.html

Endnote 29

For an insider’s view of the abrupt change in policy, see:
Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 58-59
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Endnote 30

Unidentified Flying Objects Project “Grudge” (Technical Report No. 102-AC 49/15-100), August 1949. The quote (Conclusions) appear on p. 9.
http://www.nicap.org/docs/grudgereport_complete.pdf

Endnote 31

Michael Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge, ed. David M. Jacobs, (University Press of Kansas, 2000), 97-99.

Endnote 32

For examples see items: 112; 187; 202; 231; 235; 238; 290; 291; 292; 297; 298; 304; 325; 326 in Brad Sparks, comp., Comprehensive Catalog of 1,500 Project Blue Book UFO Unknowns: A Work in Progress, 2001-2003.
http://www.aliensthetruth.com/images/docs/BB_Unknowns_1_7.pdf

In addition, http://www.cufos.org/BB_Unknowns.html

Also, for a compilation of 42 UFO sighting reports covering a period from Sept. 1950-1954, by military personnel serving in Korea, see Richard F. Haines, Advanced Aerial Devices Reported During the Korean War (Los Altos, CA: LDA Press, 1990).

Endnote 33

Jerome Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon From The Beginning, Vol. 1 (Detroit: Omnigraphics Books, 1998), pp. 431-432.

Endnote 34

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 91-93, and Ruppelt Files.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Endnote 35

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions, p. 103-104. Original quote from Ruppelt Files.

Endnote 36

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era,” in UFOs and Abductions, p. 105.

Endnote 37

Department of the Air Force, AFL 200-5, (29 April 1952).
http://www.nicap.org/directives/AFL_200-5.pdf
Text version from: http://www.cufon.org/cufon/AFL200-5.htm.

Endnote 38

For examples of 1952 press accounts and various documents, see:
http://www.project1947.com/fig/1952a.htm

Endnote 39

Peter Carlson, “Alien Armada! (1952 Washington, DC UFO sightings),” Washington Post, 21 July 2002.
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc823.htm

Endnote 40

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 160.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Endnote 41

Jerome Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon from the Beginning, Vol. 2 (Detroit: Omnigraphics Books, 1998), p. 999. Original quote from: Harry G. Barnes, “Washington Radar Observer Relates Watching Stunts by Flying Saucers,” New York World-Telegram (July 29, 1952).
http://www.nicap.org/articles/newsarticlesJuly1952.pdf (page 16)

Endnote 42

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 164-165.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Endnote 43

Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 1001. Albert Chop, the Pentagon’s Public Information Officer, was present in the radar room during Lt. Patterson’s encounter:

“Let's say I was apprehensive. Damn apprehensive and maybe a little frightened! Because I didn't know what was going to happen! And, I could see what was going on on the radarscope. So, everybody was silent, and we're just listening to Barnes vectoring the plane around the different areas. And then having Patterson say he saw these objects: ‘I see them, and I'm moving in for a better look.’ And then, ‘They're all around me. What shall I do?’ You know, what would you tell him?” Chop, Albert M., 1999

Interviewed by Thomas Tulien and Brad Sparks, November 5 (Sign Oral History Project) pp. 10-14; 45-46.

Endnote 44

Peter Carlson, “Alien Armada! (1952 Washington, DC UFO sightings).
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc823.htm

Farnsworth’s quote also in: Australian Associated Press, 30 July 1952.
http://www.project1947.com/fig/1952a.htm

Endnote 45

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 168-167.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Endnote 46

Peter Carlson, “Alien Armada! (1952 Washington, DC UFO sightings).
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc823.htm

Donald E. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers from Outer Space (New York: Henry Holt, 1953), pp. 71-89. See also NICAP Case Directory: Washington National Radar/Visual Sightings from:
http://www.nicap.org/wnsdir.htm

and July 1952 newspaper accounts
http://www.nicap.org/articles/newsarticlesJuly1952.pdf

Endnote 47

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, pp. 169-1970.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Also of interest, original case documents for Project Blue Book case #1661, Washington National Sightings (July 1952); and a study by the Civil Aeronautics Administration in May 1953, titled, A Preliminary Study of Unidentified Targets Observed On Air Traffic Control Radars. This study was conducted on numerous targets observed 13-14 August on the Washington Microwave-Early-Warning (MEW) radar, supplemented by observations in November during initial test runs on the Indianapolis ASR-2 radar.
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/wash_nat/wash1952.htm#Zero

Also, James E. McDonald, “Meteorological Factors in Unidentified Radar Returns” (presented to the American Meteorological Society, Nov. 1970). Available online from:
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/metfac70.html

Endnote 48

Truman had been receiving quarterly briefings on the flying saucer issue from his Air Force Aide, Brig. General Robert B. Landry since 1948. See (Addendum, Subject: UFOs)
http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/landryr.htm

Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 167.
http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm

Endnote 49

Gerald K. Haines. "CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90" Studies in Intelligence, Semiannual Edition, No. 1 (1997). Available online (see “Early CIA Concerns, 1947-52”)
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html#top
Also from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/library/ciaufo.html

Endnote 50

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions, p. 109-111.

Endnote 51

Marshall Chadwell, memorandum for DCI, ""Unidentified Flying Objects," 2 December 1952.

Chadwell, memorandum for Amory, DDI, "Approval in Principle - External Research Project Concerned with Unidentified Flying Objects," no date.

Haines, "CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90" Studies in Intelligence. (Early CIA Concerns, 1947-52)
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html#top

Endnote 52

“Report of Panel” (Tab A). In Report of Meetings of Scientific Advisory Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects Convened by Office of Scientific Intelligence, CIA, 14-18 January 1953.
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/robert.htm

Also, declassified CIA documents pertaining to UFOs available from:
http://www.foia.cia.gov/search/site/ufo

Endnote 53

Somewhat ironically, in 1965 Arthur Godfrey disclosed on his nationwide television program an alarming UFO encounter he and co-pilot Frank Munciello experienced while piloting his private executive airplane. Donald Keyhoe, Aliens From Outer Space (1973) pp. 111-112.

Also: http://www.rense.com/ufo5/filers112699.htm

Endnote 54

Haines. "CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90" Studies in Intelligence.
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html#top (see Robertson Panel, 1952-53)

Endnote 55

Original quote (pp. 23-24)
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/robert.htm

Also, “Within a month, the FBI was investigating Los Angeles’s Civilian Saucer Investigations, and Walter Riedel was being pressured to resign. Robertson shortly wrote to Marshall Chadwell: “That ought to fix the Forteans.” Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era,” UFOs and Abductions, p. 115. Historical information on CSI-LA from:
http://www.project1947.com/shg/csi/index.html#csi2

Endnote 55

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. p. 97.

Endnote 57

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 104-105; JANAP 146C and JANAP 146E
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/janp146c.htm

Endnote 58

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 142-144. For example, the 24 October 1968 Minot AFB case report concluded two probable (Ground-visual: Aircraft-B-52, and Astro-Sirius), and two possible explanations (Radar: Plasma, and Air-visual: Plasma). Multiple explanations were required to account for different aspects of the observations. The Blue Book Statistical Data for 1968 categorized the Minot AFB case as identified (Other), by Radar Analysis (as plasma). The Minot AFB targeting officer that analyzed the B-52 radarscope film for SAC/HQ concluded that the object was unidentified. See Quintanilla, “UFOs: An Air Force Dilemma,” (see p. 115 of PDF)
http://www.noufors.com/Documents/afdilemma.pdf
http://www.minotb52ufo.com/pdf/Quintanilla-afdilemma.pdf

The final chapter provides Blue Book statistical data based on UFO reports received for the years 1953-69.

Endnote 59

Swords, “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era," in UFOs and Abductions, p. 117. Original quote from the Ruppelt Files.

Endnote 60

Donald E. Keyhoe, The Flying Saucers Are Real (New York: Fawcett Publications, 1950); Flying Saucers From Outer Space (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1953); The Flying Saucer Conspiracy (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1955).

See also the Donald E. Keyhoe Archives:
http://www.hallrichard.com/keyhoe.htm

Endnote 61

Jacques and Janine Vallee, Challenge to Science: The UFO Enigma (Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Co., 1966), p. 46.

Endnote 62

Top five months for reports; July 1952: 536, November 1957: 361, August 1952: 326, August 1965: 262, May 1967: 165. See “Table 1: Number of UFO Reports Received each Month by Project Blue Book.” (p. 861)
http://www.project1947.com/shg/condon/s5chap02.html

Also, Los Angeles Times, 1 August 1965
http://www.isgp.eu/UFOs/press_reports/1965_08_01_LAT_Unidentified_Objects_Seen_in_Sky_Again.htm

Endnote 63

Francis E. Warren AFB, Cheyenne, WY is home of the 90th [Strategic] Missile Wing. The 200 ICBM Minuteman missile sites are spread over an area of 12,600 square miles in Wyoming, Colorado and Nebraska. Each Flight (designated A-T) contains a centralized Launch Control Facility, manned by a Flight Security Controller, and Security Alert Teams responsible for the security requirements of 10 Minuteman ICBM missiles, housed in remote underground silos.

More information on F.E. Warren AFB:
http://www.warren.af.mil/library/factsheets/index.asp

F. E. Warren AFB, Missile Site Map:
http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/shared/media/photodb/photos/090108-F-1234P-002.jpg

Endnote 64

J. Allen Hynek, The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry (Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Co., 1972) pp. 184-185. Original transcript of telephone calls received by Project Blue Book (roughly halfway down the page)
http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc296.htm

Endnote 65

See for example, “Ellington AFB [Houston, TX] UFO reports associated with Midwest flap 31 July-7 August 1965”
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-341

The reports were apparently compiled in a separate folder (file #9665) not presently available online.

Endnote 66

Vallees, Challenge to Science, p. 44; and Jerome Clark, “The Greatest Flap Yet?” Flying Saucer Review 12,1 (January/February 1966), p. 27. Also in Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

Endnote 67

Vallees, Challenge to Science, pp. 44-45; Jerome Clark, “The Greatest Flap Yet?” Flying Saucer Review 12,1 (January/February 1966), p. 27

Endnote 68

Vallees, Challenge to Science, p. 45; Hynek, The UFO Experience, photo insert, Plate 2 (two photos and caption); Jacques Vallee, Forbidden Science: Journals 1957-1969 (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1992) p.146; and Clark, “The Greatest Flap Yet?” Flying Saucer Review 12,1, p. 27.

Also, of photographic interest see:
http://ufopics.blogspot.com/search/label/1965

Endnote 69

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” pp. 47-48. Clark, UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

Endnote 70

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” p. 48. Clark, UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

Endnote 71

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 194-195.

Clark, UFO Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 737.

Endnote 72

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” p.48.

Endnote 73

Strentz, “A Survey of Press Coverage of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947 – 1966,” p.50.

Endnote 74

Hynek, The UFO Experience, pp. 197-198. Gen. LeBailly memorandum (pp. 1286-1287)
http://www.project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-a.html

Endnote 75

Ann Arbor (AP), 14 March 1966; and Ann Arbor (AP), 17 March 1966, in John C. Sherwood, Flying Saucers Are Watching You: The Incident at Dexter and the Incredible Michigan Flap (Clarksburg, WV: Saucerian Publications, 1967). Also, UFO Case Report, “The Michigan Sightings/’Swamp Gas’ Case,”
http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case778.htm

Endnote 76

Detroit Free Press, 22 March 1966, in Sherwood, Flying Saucers Are Watching You; and Life Magazine, “Well Witnessed Invasion by Something: from Australia to Michigan,” 1 April 1966, pp. 24-31.

Endnote 77

Ann Arbor (AP), 21 March 1966, in Sherwood, Flying Saucers Are Watching You.

Endnote 78

UFO Case Report, “Sheriffs Watch High-Performance Discs, Also Tracked on Radar”
http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case778.htm

Endnote 79

“News Release by William Van Horn including Lab Results of 1966 Swamp Gas Case”
http://www.cufon.org/cufon/swampgas.htm

Los Angeles Times, 23 August 1966
http://www.isgp.eu/UFOs/press_reports/1966_03_23_LAT_Second_Aerial_Object_Reported_in_Michigan.htm

Life Magazine, 1 April, 1966.

Also, various press accounts of the Michigan sightings from:
http://www.ufologie.net/htm/michi662.htm

…and a collection of documents from:
http://xx12.com/Michigan%201966%20UFO.htm

Endnote 80

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 201-202; “Statement on Dexter and Hillsdale UFO Sightings by J. Allen Hynek, Scientific Consultant to Project Blue Book,” (Detroit Press Club, 25 March 1966).
http://xx12.com/Michigan%201966%20UFO.htm

Endnote 81

Time Magazine, “Fatuus Season” 1 April 1966.
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,840602,00.html

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. p. 202.

For Quintanilla’s perspective see “The Michigan Flap” (pp. 51-52 of PDF):
http://www.minotb52ufo.com/pdf/Quintanilla-afdilemma.pdf

Endnote 82

News release, Gerald R. Ford to George P. Millar, Chairman; Rep. L. Mendel Rivers, Chairman, Science and Astronautics Committee, Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, 3/28/66; (Folder “UFO 1966,” Box D9) Gerald R. Ford Congressional Papers, Gerald R. Ford Library.
http://www.presidentialufo.com/gerald-ford/89-gerald-ford-ufo-talk

Endnote 84

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 198-199.

“Special Report of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, Ad Hoc Committee to Review Project Blue Book,” March 1966.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/condon/appndx-a.html

Endnote 85

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 204-206.

Also, for Quintanilla’s perspective see “The Beginning of a Congressional Coup” (pp. 53-56 of PDF)
http://www.minotb52ufo.com/pdf/Quintanilla-afdilemma.pdf

Endnote 86

Air Force Regulation 80-17
AFR-80-17.pdf

Endnote 87

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 206-209.

Articles and documents re: the University of Colorado UFO project and the Condon report:
http://www.ufoevidence.org/topics/CondonReport.htm
http://www.project1947.com/shg/shglinks.html#condon

Endnote 88

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 224.

Endnote 89

Michael D. Swords, “The University of Colorado UFO Project: The ‘Scientific Study of UFOs’” Journal of UFO Studies, n.s. 6, 1995/1996: pp. 157-161.

Quoted in Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon From The Beginning, Vol. 2, p. 949.

Endnote 90

Lt. Col. Robert Hippler, to Dr. Edward Condon, 16 January 1967.
http://www.nicap.org/docs/HipplerLetters.pdf
(includes Robert Low to Lt. Col. Robert Hippler, 27 January 1967; and news clipping of Condon’s 25 January lecture at Corning).

Endnote 91

Dick Olive, “Most UFO’s Explainable, Says Scientist,” Star-Gazette (Elmira, NY, 26 January 1967).
http://www.nicap.org/docs/HipplerLetters.pdf (page 5)

Endnote 92

John G. Fuller, “Flying Saucer Fiasco,” Look, 14 May 1968.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/fiasco.html

Endnote 93

Jacobs, David M. The UFO Controversy in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. pp. 225-238.

David Saunders and R. Roger Harkins, UFOs? Yes! (New York: Signet, 1968).

Also, U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Science and Astronautics, Hearings, Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, 90th Cong., 2d sess., 29 July 1968.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/symposium/index.html

Endnote 94

Review of the University of Colorado Report on Unidentified Flying Objects by a Panel of the National Academy of Sciences. (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 8 January 1969).
Text version: http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/nascu.html

Also of interest re: NAS, Richard Greenwell, “Odishaw and the Condon Report” from:
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/greenwell.html

Endnote 95

Daniel Gilmore, ed., Final Report of the Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (New York: Bantam, 1968). (quote in Section I, page 2)
http://project1947.com/shg/condon/index.html.

Endnote 96

"A Sledgehammer for Nuts," Nature Volume 221 (March 8, 1969): 899-900.

Endnote 97

“The Condon Report and UFOs,” review by J. Allen Hynek, in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, April 1969: 39-42.
http://www.project1947.com/shg/articles/bas1.html

See also P.A. Sturrock, “An Analysis of the Condon Report on the Colorado UFO Project,” Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. I, No. I, 1987, pp. 75-100.
http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_01_1_sturrock_2.pdf

Endnote 98

Air Force to Terminate Project “Blue Book”. Washington, DC: Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs), 17 December 1969.
http://www.nicap.org/waves/1969BB_Termination.pdf

Endnote 99

Records of Project Blue Book 1947-69 (National Archives Microfilm Publication T1206, [94 rolls of 35 mm film]); Records of Headquarters United States Air Force (Air Staff), Record Group 341; National Archives II, College Park, MD. NARA Guide to Federal Records
http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/341.html#341.15

See also, The Project Blue Book Archive: free access to tens of thousands of official documents related to the U.S. government's investigation of the UFO phenomenon.
http://www.bluebookarchive.org/documentation/about_bba.aspx

Endnote 100

This statement appears to originate in USAF Fact Sheets from the 1970s.
http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/ufo/

Re: Bibliography—see also Library of Congress, Science Reference Series (Tracer Bullet 91-1)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/tracer-bullets/ufostb.html

Naval Historical Archive - Project Blue Book Bibliography
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq29-1.htm